Palmanova, the Renaissance Fortress Town That Took 200 Years to Build

Palmanova remains one of the most fascinating towns in Italy, with its grand design and Renaissance engineering.

By: Jerry Finzi, Grand Voyage Italy

Palmanova is located in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in northeastern Italy, about 70 miles east of Venice. The town is protected inside by its massive star-shaped fortress walls, a wonderful example of Late Renaissance fortressa design built by the Venetian Republic in 1593. The fortifications were included in UNESCO’s World Heritage Site list in 2017.


The unique thing about Palmanova is that the entire town and expansive piazza were built within the shape of a nine-pointed star, designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Between the points of the star, ramparts protrude so that the points could defend each other from attacking forces.

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A moat surrounded the town with three large, guarded entry gates. The construction of the first circle, with a total circumference of 4 miles, took 30 years. A second phase of construction took place between 1658 and 1690, and the outer line of fortifications were completed between 1806 and 1813 under the Napoleonic domination. The final fortress consists of: 9 ravelins, 9 bastions, 9 lunettes, and 18 cavaliers.


Since Palmanova was built during the Renaissance, its design fit in extremely well with Thomas More’s social philosophy of a Utopian society. The Utopian concept requires geometrical harmony in the design of public spaces, supposing that if the living space was protected from harm, and offered esthetic beauty and comfort, then its citizenry would be healthy, successful and content. Think of it as being the Renaissance’s idea of Feng Shui.

Every road was carefully calibrated, and each part of the design plan had a specific purpose. Even the fortifications were built with the Utopian concept in mind, with the outer ramparts looking simply like a forest as the town was approached–essentially hiding it from potential enemies. This effect is still evident today in stark contrast to the very visible hill towns common in most other regions of Italy.

Monumental gate Cividale

Although Palmanova was praised as one of the most successful Renaissance-planned towns, almost nobody moved there. Venice was forced to pardon criminals, offering them free building lots just to help populate the town. Still today, even though Palmanova is a pristine, well laid out town, to visitors it has a totally different feel than most Italian towns, which evolved gradually, in a hodgepodge manner with varied building styles, sizes, colors and textures. This town definitely looks like it was designed and built almost like a modern development…all the buildings are similar in style, similar height and the streets are laid out in mathematical precision. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) types will feel right at home here.

Still, today Palmanova is a wonderful place to visit, its Piazza Centrale being the perfect place to host many sagre and festivals. Visit in July and you can enjoy a historical reenactment which takes place on the day of the Festival of the Redeemer. Tourists can enjoy guided visits to the fort and experience the Venetian cuisine of the 15th century.

Get a vivid, overhead view, here:

There is also the Museo Storico Militare (Military History Museum) with an amazing array of exhibits of Renaissance and Napoleonic-era weapons and technology. You can enjoy cycling around the bastions in warmer months. The Duomo Dogale (formerly the Duke’s palazzo) is a wonderful cathedral to visit during the Christmas season if only to enjoy the wonderful display of presepe (nativity scenes).

Palmanova Events

The expansive Piazza Centrale

Getting there…

Just two miles from town is the train station, Scalo Ferroviario. Venice is about 90 minutes away by car on the A4. Trieste is less than an hour east via the A4. The beach town of Grado is only 30 minutes by car and it can be a great place to stay, keeping Palmanova on your itinerary as a day trip.

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